2500–1500 B.C.E. —The Indus River Valley civilization develops and flourishes. Evidence of early Hindu practice is archaeologically dated to this vanished culture.
1600–1400 B.C.E. —The Aryan warrior culture conquers the Indus River Valley, bringing with it the Sanskrit language and major influences in the development of Hinduism.
1500–1200 B.C.E. —The Vedic Age in which the Rig Veda is written, reflecting the influence of joining the Aryan and Indus River Valley cultures.
1000–300 B.C.E. —The Brahmanas and Upanishads are written and added to the original Vedas.
600–500 B.C.E. —The Age of Protest as Buddhism and Jainism break away from the main flow of Hinduism.
400 B.C.E.–800 C.E. —The Hindu response to Buddhism and Jainism results in further changes to the main teachings of Hinduism.
326 B.C.E. —Alexander the Great brings his army and the influence of Greek civilization into the northernmost regions of India. The Indian Mauryan Empire is created to counter this Greek invasion of culture and ideas.
250 B.C.E. —Ashoka becomes Emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty.
400–500 C.E. — Hinduism returns as the dominant religion of India. Temples and monuments are built to honor Hindu ideas, gods and beliefs. This is the era of the Hindu Renaissance.
800–1000 C.E. — Bhakti movements begin to develop in India.
900 C.E. — Shankara teaches the reality of One Brahman or One God, introducing significant monotheistic beliefs into Hinduism.
1100 C.E. — Muslims arrive in India and influence the evolution of the Hindu faith.
1400–1700 C.E. — Europeans arrive in India to pursue colonization and commercial goals within the Hindu world.
1919–1948 C.E. — The era of Mahatma Gandhi’s profound influence on Hinduism and India.
1948–1990 C.E. — India and Pakistan become independent countries and enter the modern era. Both possess nuclear weapons and suffer from religious tension among their Muslim and Hindu populations.